**Why**

- The aim of modeling experimental data is to find a mathematical description that allows an accurate and unambiguous explanation of the data. This description can then be used to explain known features of the system studied and to predict new features. The path from initial idea about the molecule to study to a final atomic model and its interpretation is long. It includes many steps stretched over the time: from obtaning samples and data acquisition and analysis to building and refining an atomic model that represents the data. Errors can occur in each of these steps. To assertain the good quality of the result of structural work - the atomic model - validation procedures should be implemented at each of these steps.

**What**

Model.The atomic models derived from cryo-EM reconstructions should conform to prior knowledge about stereochemistry. This covers a wide range of information, ranging from covalent geometry, through non-bonded interactions, up to known distributions of side chain and main chain conformations in both proteins and nucleic acids. Validation is required to check the consistency of an atomic model with this prior knowledge to identify possible errors in the model.

Model to data fit.A perfectly good model from stereochemistry prospection may not describe (fit) the experimental data (3D reconstruction) sufficeintly well or at all. Therefore it is important to validate how well the atomic model described the experimental information.

Data.The quality of experimental data, such as the resolution or amount noise defines the quality of derived models. For example, a higher-resolution data is likely to yield a more accurate atomic model than a lower-resolution date. It is vital then to learn about data quality as much as possible to have correct expectations about corresponding models as well as to use correct model building and refinement procedures appropriate for the data at hand.

**How**

Comprehensive validation (cryo-EM) is one stop program in Phenix that validates model, data and model-to-data fit. Minimal input to Comprehensive validation is a map (mrc, ccp4 or related format) or an atomic model in PDB or mmCIF format. However, providing the map, model and two half-maps is desirable. For geometric validation Phenix uses MolProbity, which is fully integrated into into the packadge, and Coot that is enabled to communicate validation results.

**How to use the validation tools in the Phenix GUI:** Click here

**Common issues**

- Outliers versus errors: in most structures there will be a non-zero number of Ramachandran and side chain rotamer outliers. If the data (the map), and surrounding chemistry, supports the outlier conformation then it is most probable that this is correct (i.e. an outlier from prior expectations, rather than an error). However, in the absence of supporting density, and/or conflicting local chemistry, it is most probably an error that needs correction. For example, an atomic model derived from low-resolution data is expected to have no geometrical outliers because they are unlikely to be supported by the experimental data.

**Related programs**

These three command line programs are the main drivers of the Comprehensive validation (cryo-EM) tool in Phenix GUI:

**phenix.mtriage**program computes various map statistics including resolution estimates, FSC curves and more.**phenix.model_statistics**computes covalent model geometry statistics as well as various MolProbity scores (Clashscore, rotamer and Ramachandran plot, C-beta deviations and much more), ADP (B-factor) and occupancy statistics.**phenix.map_model_cc**(or phenix.model_map_cc) computes various model-map correlation coefficients, such as overall CC, CC per each chain and CC per each residue.